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UVEA- INTRODUCTION

The middle coat of the eye is known as UVEA, in Latin, it is known as grape because if we remove the outer part of our eye, it will look reddish – greenish. The posterior part is the choroid, a layer of blood vessels, and connective tissue. The forward position of the uvea contains ciliary muscles and the pupil therefore, this area is very sensitive and complex.

The prime functions of the uvea are:

  • Nutrients and gas exchange – uveal vessels use the ciliary body and the iris, to indirectly supply all the necessary nutrients required by the outer retina, sclera, and the lens which lacks a blood supply.
  • Light absorption – uvea improves the contrast of all the images formed on the retina by reducing the amount of reflected light within the eyes and also absorbs outside light which is not fully opaque.

Some other functions of the UVEA are to control accommodation by the ciliary body, reduction of retinal illumination on the pupil, and secretion of aqueous humor.

IRIS

It is a ring-shaped membrane behind the cornea of the eyes which adjusts the opening of the pupil. Iris provides an individual with their eye colors. The pupil and iris regulate the amount of light entering our eyes. When there is too much light our pupil gets shrunken, whereas when the light is too less our pupil gets broaden up. It is said that iris changes colors however, the color of an eye may change due to lightning changes or perception based on nearby objects.

Some of the functions of the iris are:

  • Regulates the amount of light entering our eyes.
  • It also performs “accommodative reflex”, eyes involuntary ability to switch focus from nearby objects to distant objects.

CHOROID

It contains the connective tissues lying between the sclera and retina, also known as choroidea. It provides oxygen to the outer layers of the retina.

Some of the functions of the choroid layer are:

  • Supplies blood that provides nourishment to the eye
  • Contains a dark pigment preventing light rays from scattering in the eye

UVEITIS

It is the swelling in the middle part of the eye which can be caused due to infectious or non-infectious reasons. It is normally not that serious but when not treated on time it can lead to severe vision loss.

MAJOR SYMPTOMS OF UVEITIS

Some of the major symptoms of uveitis are:

  • Redness in the eye
  • Pain
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Blurred vision
  • Dark floating spots in your eyes

CAUSES OF UVEITIS

Uveitis can be associated with an illness such as an autoimmune disorder or an infection caused by some bacteria or viruses. Other reasons that might lead to uveitis are trauma or an injury in the eye.

DIAGNOSIS REQUIRED FOR UVEITIS

Your eye surgeon, i.e. ophthalmologist, will conduct an eye examination so that they can study all the problems and root reason for the cause. They may also ask you to get a blood test done, to check the presence of any underlying conditions causing uveitis.

TREATMENT FOR UVEITIS

Treatment depends on the cause of the disease, usually; it is treated with eye drops. The goal of the treatment is to reduce the inflammation and redness in the eye.

Some common treatments are:

  • Treatment includes dark glasses and eye drops to reduce the pain and irritation caused in the eyes.
  • Some treatment includes steroids taken by mouth, injections around the eyes and antibiotics.

    COMPLICATIONS AFTER THE TREATMENT

Some complications caused by untreated uveitis are:

  • Cataracts, clouding of the lens or the cornea
  • Glaucoma, high pressure in the eyes
  • Retinal detachment
  • Loss of vision

IRITIS

Inflammation in the iris i.e. colored part of the eye, also known as anterior uveitis. It can be a serious problem causing vision loss, eye pain, or extreme redness.

MAJOR SYMPTOMS OF IRITIS

Some of the major symptoms of iritis are:

  • Pain in the eye or near the eyebrows
  • Severe pain in bright lights
  • Redness in the eye
  • Blurry visions
  • Headache

FACTORS LEADING TO IRITIS

Iritis can be caused due to several reasons such as:

  • Injury in the eyes or injuries caused due to burns.
  • Medication reactions.
  • Infections from bacteria or viruses.
  • Genetic disorder
  • It can also be caused due to excessive smoking.

DIAGNOSIS REQUIRED FOR TREATMENT

Your eye examiner will conduct an eye examination to study the problem properly. They might also ask you about your medical history or family health conditions. There are several ways through which they will check your eyes:

  • VISUAL ACUITY TEST- the examiner will place a chart in front of you at some distance and will ask you to read the letters one by one. The size of the letter gradually decreases as you go down.
  • PRESSURE READING- the examiner will test the pressure in your eyes using certain instruments.
  • SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION- the examiner will use a torch-like instrument to check all the details of your eyes properly. This gives them a better idea of the treatment required.

TREATMENT FOR IRITIS

It is very difficult to start treatment for iritis right away. Therefore, you will be required to take several medications and visit the doctor regularly.

You might be given the following to improve your condition:

  • Eye drops to soothe the pupil
  • Steroids to reduce the inflammation
  • Antibiotics to fight the infections
  • Some other medicines for pain and sensitivity to light

   COMPLICATIONS AFTER THE SURGERY

Several complications can arise due to improper or delayed treatment:

  • Cataracts, clouding of the iris or the lenses
  • Optic nerve damage
  • Glaucoma, high pressure in the eyes
  • Swelling in the back of the eyes
  • Inflammation in the eyes or around the retinal area.

CHOROIDAL DYSTROPHIES

It is an eye disorder that involves a layer of blood vessels called choroid; vessels are between the retina and sclera. In most cases, it is due to abnormal gene i.e. passed down through families. The only symptom of this disease is vision loss, especially at night. It can be treated with surgery only.

Also Read:

Eye Discharge – (Causes, Treatment, and Precautions)
Eye Stye – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment