EyeMantra https://eyemantra.org Best Eye Hospital In Delhi Thu, 21 Jan 2021 07:21:36 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.6 https://eyemantra.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/rsz_em.png EyeMantra https://eyemantra.org 32 32 Difference Between Chalazia and Styes – Symptoms,Treatement &Types https://eyemantra.org/blog/chalazia-and-styes/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/chalazia-and-styes/#respond Thu, 21 Jan 2021 07:21:33 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8397 In chalazia there is an inflammation on the eyelid with no pain . Stye is a disease that is same as chalazia but it causes extreme pain in eye.


It is also called as a chalazion. It is the swollen bump on the eyelid. It is caused usually when there is clogging of our oil gland present in the eyelid. It can be seen on an upper or lower eyelid.

It is usually painless but when the severity increases, the chalazia condition can cause pain, redness as well as a loss of vision or disturbance in vision.

Symptoms and Causes:

Chalazia are usually caused by blockage of oil glands or tiny meibomian glands present in the upper or lower eyelid. The function of these oil glands is moistening of the eye. Sometimes, due to infections that attack the meibomian glands can cause chalazia condition.

It is usually seen as a painless lump or inflammation or swelling on the eyelid. Unless the chalazia are infected, the pain or redness inside the eye is not seen. It can either cause blurred or blockage of vision based on the size of the inflammation.

Risk factors:

The chalazia condition is usually seen in people suffering from various conditions such as acne, rosacea, chronic blepharitis.

People who are suffering from conjunctivitis caused due to a virus or any kind of infection can also result in developing chalazia disease.

Recurring and unusual chalazia are rarely seen in people.

Diagnosis of chalazia:

  The lump on the upper or lower eyelid can be seen which helps in diagnosing chalazia. The doctor collects the fluid which is seen near the inflamed eyelid and checks it under the microscope. Differences in symptoms help in differentiating chalazia from styes.

Treatment of chalazia:

The treatment of chalazia is done by two mechanisms i.e, home remedy or with medical help.

The steps are as below –

Home remedies: In home remedies, the use of a warm compress is seen for treating chalazia.

  • Since the lump of chalazia is present, first of all, one should not try to squeeze the chalazia as it can lead to infection.
  • Then the application of warm compress on the eyelid for at least 10 minutes and apply it 4-5 times a day.
  • The application of a warm compress can help in the removal of blockages in oil glands by softening the oils present in it.
  • Massage the eyelid lump for few times during a day. Apply some eye cream or eye drops prescribed by the doctor.

Medical help:

 In the case of chalazia, the condition is not cured with the help of home remedies. Then the use of medical help i.e, use of corticosteroid injections or surgical methods. These methods are very much effective against chalazia.

Prevention of chalazia:

There are no possible ways to permanently avoid chalazia condition. It can occur in any healthy person depending on his or her eye maintenance. But following some dialy life routine , the prevention of chalazia can be achieved such as

  1. Wash the hands before touching the eyes.
  2. Proper cleaning of accessories used in the eyes such as contact lenses or spectacles.
  3. Sometimes, check out for symptoms of developing chalazia inside the eye can also help in preventing chalazia.

Differences between chalazia and styes:

It is sometimes really difficult to distinguish between chalazia and stye by mere appearance.

The stye condition is really painful,which is seen at the edge of the eyelid and caused by an infection at the root of eyelashes. It has the potential to infect the entire eyelid.

Whereas the chalazia condition is not painful. It is a lump that is seen further away from a location where the stye occurs on an eyelid. It is caused by clogging of meibomian glands or oil glands present in the eyelid. In rare cases, it can cause swelling of a complete eyelid.


 It is also referred to as a hordeolum. It is annoying as well as uncomfortable. It is caused by a bacterial infection on the eyelashes or on the oil glands. The bacteria which gets trapped inside these glands causes the development of stye on the eyelid. Sometimes the dead skin cells, as well as other debris get clogged inside the oil glands leading to stye.

 Types of stye:

   There are two types of stye which are namely internal and external stye.

 External styes are much common than internal styes. It is seen near the follicles of the eyelash and is located at the edge outside the eyelid.

Internal styes are rarely seen cases but are extremely painful and can cause much more damage than external styes.

These are seen inside the oil gland (meibomian glands). There is a fluid-like discharge from the infected part of the eyelid.

Symptoms of stye:

  • Swelling of an eye.
  • Yellowish color discharge
  • Photophobia
  • Sensation inside the eye
  • Watering of eye

Risk factors:

The factors that influence the development of stye inside the eye are having itchy eyes and inflammation of the eyelid. Various skin diseases such as acne, rosacea etc. Mostly the styes are caused by a bacterial species called as Staphylococcus. These bacteria usually reside over the skin and are harmless bacterial species. They cause infection when they get transferred into the eye or get trapped inside the oil glands of the eyelid.

Eye infections which caused by the improper maintenance and cleaning of eye accessories such as contact lenses and spectacles. Usage of contacts even after they have expired and also wearing contact lenses while sleeping become a major problem for an eye infection.

Treatment of styes:

The styes can be treated by warm compress and also by the use of topical antibiotics. By placing a warm compress on the stye can help in liquefying the hardened or blocked material inside the oil gland and allowing it to drain.

The unclogging of the gland can help in treating internal styes by providing a drainage route to the pus and removal of debris inside the eyelid.

 Use a mild shampoo and gentle soaps with the help of a cotton swab to remove drainage from the eyelid. A little amount of blood is seen while draining the pus and also when there is an increase in blood, then it must be treated by the doctor.

The eyelid is made numb and then with the help of a small incision on the eyelid, the doctor drains the pus and debris which is clogged inside the eyelid which results in styes formation.

Complications of styes:

If left untreated, the styes can sometimes be more fatal when there is a lot of loss of blood while performing the drainage of the pus and debris from the infected eyelid.

Also, when there is a rapid growth of infection inside the eyelid it can develop stye inside the eye.

If there is an increase in inflammation or swelling in the eyelid or any new signs of infections inside the eye, then it shows the development of severe infection of stye inside the eye.

Sometimes, there is a temporary loss of vision due to stye condition along with inflammation and redness around the eyes showing the effect of a stye on the skin or increase of skin infections.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment. Visit our website Eyemantra. To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.Our other services includes : Paediatric Ophthalmologist,Computer Vision Syndrome, Neuro-Ophthalmology and many more.

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All You Should know about Ophthalmologists, Optometrists and Optician https://eyemantra.org/blog/ophthalmologists-optometrists-optician/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/ophthalmologists-optometrists-optician/#respond Wed, 20 Jan 2021 08:20:59 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8390 To get treatment related to the eyes including diseases and disorders concerning the same a patient goes to an ophthalmologist. An ophthalmologist is different from optometrist and optician.


The Ophthalmologist is an eye specialist who treats diseases and disorders related to eye problems. He is a specialist in vision care. They are specialist who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of a wide range of eye-related problems which includes performing an eye-related surgery as well as giving prescription about eyeglasses that one needs to wear. They are considered as doctors in the field of vision. They need to complete their training and education period in order to be considered as an ophthalmologist. They receive an education from a four-year course and then have to undergo training for at least two years. They can also recognize various underlying diseases present in the person as they have studied the medical field.

Training and certification of an ophthalmologist

An ophthalmologist needs to receive a basic medical degree from a medical school and then should study post-graduation in ophthalmology.  They then need to do an internship for one year to gain experience.  They also undergo a three-year residency training in which they learn to treat and diagnose diseases related to eyes. They also need to spend two to three years on training for a particular specialization in the eye field. An Ophthalmologist is usually certified doctors and can treat and diagnose patients related to their field. Training and internships done by the person refine their skills as an eye specialist.

 There are other subfields present in the wide field of eye specialization. In order, to decide which specialist to visit one must know about them too. The sub-specialties in ophthalmologist deals with a particular part of the eyes.

Ophthalmology subspecialists

A comprehensive ophthalmologist is a person who specializes in all the aspects of the eye including the treatment and diagnosis of the eye. They also have additional training to provides the best treatment for particular eye diseases like glaucoma or cataract. An ophthalmologist suggests a subspecialist for proper treatment in that particular area.

  • Cornea– In front of iris and pupil there is a presence of clear and dome-shaped covering known as the cornea. A subspecialist in cornea treats eye problems related to the cornea or corneal eye diseases. They also perform LASIK and corneal transplants. They also handle various serious and complicated conditions which include lens fitting.
  • Retina– There is a presence of light-sensitive tissues present inside the eyes on which the image is formed. This part of the eye is known as the retina. The retinal subspecialists treat all the diseases related to the retina part of the eye. They also treat macular degeneration and diabetic eye diseases of the patients. They also perform surgery on retina if it gets torn or detached.
  • Glaucoma– It is an eye-related disease which affects the optic nerve present in the eyes. The optic nerve connects the brain to the eyes. The build-up of any kind of pressure inside the eyes can damage the optic nerve. An ophthalmologist with sub-specialization in glaucoma can treat and perform surgery to cure the disease.
  • Paediatric – An ophthalmologist who treat eye conditions of the infants and children come under sub-specialty of paediatrics. They generally treat refractive error and childhood disorders and conditions.
  • Oculoplastic– They are the subspecialists who repair damaged and problems present in the eyelids of a person. They also treat the structure present around the eyeball as well as the tear drainage system. They also help in providing facial injections to improve the facial look and functions.
  • Neurology– Ophthalmologists who have sub-specialization in the neurology treat all the nerve-related problems in the eyes. They take care of eye problems linked with the brain, nerves and muscles. They also treat various optic nerve problems which may lead to vision loss, double vision, abnormal eye movement, eyelid abnormalities and unequal pupil size. These types of eye diseases are caused due to various other diseases present in the body like brain tumours ,thyroid eye disease and many more.
  • Cataract– This type of subfield is not included in sub-specialization as the general ophthalmologist is capable of performing surgery of cataract. They usually study more about the disease but are not considered as subspecialists. They also tend to perform surgery related to refractive error.
  • Ocular oncology– The ophthalmologist having this specialty deals with eye cancer. They treat and diagnose the eye cancer and provide a detailed guided treatment to the patients suffering from the disease.
  • Uveitis and immunology– The ophthalmologist who has received a specialization in this field treat inflammation of the iris, ciliary body and choroid of the eye which is caused due to immune-mediated ocular conditions. They also have knowledge regarding ocular immunomodulatory therapy.

Difference between ophthalmologists, optometrists and optician

  • An Ophthalmologist is a person who has a doctorate in providing treatment and diagnosis for people suffering from eye diseases. They are considered as medical doctors and are healthcare professionals.
  • An Optometrist is a person who is also a health care professional in the eye field. They are not considered as medical doctors. They perform a physical evaluation of the eye and are not allowed to do any eye surgery. They also are forbidden from prescribing drugs to the patients. They need to have a doctor of optometry for working in the field. An Optometrist can sometimes perform some basic eye surgery but they lack range offered to the ophthalmologists. Optometrists can suggest corrective eye glasses and can conduct various eye exams.
  • An Optician is not professionals in the eye field. Their role is limited to conduct eye test or to provide prescribed eye lenses to the patient as prescribed by an ophthalmologist or optometrist. Opticians are not permitted to treat or diagnose of any eye conditions.

Other helpful people form the team of an ophthalmologist. They include ophthalmic medical assistant, technologists, nurse and ophthalmic photographer. They may not hold a basic doctor’s degree but have a proper specialization in their field. The ophthalmic medical assistant role is to help ophthalmologist with the conduction of tests and also helps them in the examination of patients. The technologists help in assisting to doctor while performing surgery as they are trained to use complicated machines used in surgery. An Ophthalmic registered nurse is a person who has received nursing training in the field of ophthalmology. They help the doctor in performing many tasks including help in performing surgery. They also assist in performing many technical tasks. The ophthalmic photographer usually takes photos of the patient’s eye condition and documents them for an ophthalmologist to study.

Medical eye exam becomes necessary as the age progresses as eyes become more prone to diseases. It is always advisable to visit ophthalmologist whenever an eye problem or any vision-related condition is arising. It is better to get treated at an early stage. Basic vision test can be done by an optometrist but for a detailed version, it’s better to visit an ophthalmologist. The eye lenses and glasses suggested by the ophthalmologist can be brought from an optician. Eye conditions can also be caused due to various other health conditions and proper treatment can help doctor save your eyesight from getting worse. Many other factors like high blood pressure and having diabetes also affect eyesight. Vision changes are difficult to detect at very early stages.  

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment. Visit our website Eyemantra. To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.Our other services include Retina SurgerySpecs RemovalCataract Surgery, and many more.

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Nearsightedness: Symptoms ,Correction and Treatment https://eyemantra.org/blog/nearsightedness-myopia-causes/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/nearsightedness-myopia-causes/#respond Fri, 15 Jan 2021 11:48:45 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8380 Nearsightedness is the most common impaired vision usually seen in people under the age of 40. It is also known as myopia.

Symptoms of Nearsightedness:

Nearsightedness is usually seen in adults and children. The most common symptom of myopia is, when a person is unable to see distant objects clearly. People with nearsightedness usually have difficulty in reading signboards while driving a vehicle. They also face frequent headaches due to strain that develops in the eyes while concentrating on distant objects. They also have fatigue when they are involved in any physical activity. As the nearsightedness increases their vision starts to become blurrier. These people can easily read or see objects placed close to themselves. Children tend to sit near the screens for better viewing as they are unable to view the screen when kept at a particular distance. They also tend to blink excessively and persistently squint in order to view things in their surroundings. The effect of myopia may increase in a person if proper precautions are not taken.

Causes of Nearsightedness :

Nearsightedness is not a hereditary disease but parents affected with myopia have higher chances that their child would also be affected with myopia. Nearsightedness is caused due to improper arrangement of either cornea or the lens. The cornea is the part of the eye that has a dome shape, is clear and is placed in front of the surface of the eye whereas, a lens is present inside the eye and is used to refract the light that eyeballs receive. The cornea and lens help in the image formation at the surface of the retina. People suffering from nearsightedness have their image being formed in front of the retina rather than on the surface of the retina. This is caused due to enlarged eyeballs which decrease the focusing power of the cornea and lens and leads to error in image formation. Nearsightedness can also be caused due to either cornea or lens being too curved when compared to the length of the eyeball. Sometimes myopia may be caused due to both factors. When light is focused in front of the retina then the image formation results in a blurry appearance for objects placed at a distance.

Parents suffering from myopia have higher chances of having children with the same disease. As the disease is not hereditary the chances of children having nearsightedness is equally likely. Some children have myopia at an early age but as they reach adulthood the nearsightedness does not worsen and stabilizes itself. In some cases, the vision may worsen as the age of the person progresses. Nearsightedness is also believed to be caused due to longer screen time and not spending much time in outdoor activities.

Person suffering from nearsightedness has frequent headaches as they have to squint their eyes for better viewing. The chances of contracting cataracts, glaucoma and myopic maculopathy increases if the severity of myopia increases. Having other health problems like diabetes also leads to nearsightedness in such people. It is necessary to visit the ophthalmologist if any symptom of myopia can be noticed.

How to treat myopia?

The treatment of nearsightedness includes various methods through which the vision of a person can be improved and light can be focused on the surface of the retina. To achieve this goal the most common treatment is the use of lenses. Wearing appropriate lenses helps in nearsightedness by correcting the curvature of the cornea or the lens present in the eye. This can be done by wearing eyeglasses. Eyeglasses are the most commonly used device to correct vision. They can be bifocal, trifocal and also can be multifocal. They are comfortable to wear by children as well as adults. Contact lenses are also used by some people in order to correct their eyesight. Contact lenses are applied directly to the eyeballs. They come in a wide range of variety of materials and designs. They may also cause irritation and itching in the eyes. Before using contact lenses, one should take suggestions from a doctor about it. Other than these two, refractive surgery is also used to correct the vision of the nearsighted people. In refractive surgery, laser light beams are used to alter the shape of the cornea. LASIK surgery is considered the best refractive surgery. In this surgery, the surgeon makes a thin flap on the cornea of the eyes and removes some layers of the cornea in order to flatten its curve or dome shape. It causes less discomfort and also recovering from the surgery doesn’t take much time. LASEK is another refractive surgery used for nearsightedness. In this surgery reshaping and flattening of the dome-shaped cornea is done.  The photoreactive keratectomy (PRK) is similar to LASEK but in this, the epithelium is completely removed and the cornea is reshaped. After surgery, the epithelium grows back naturally. Refractive surgery is done only when nearsightedness of a person is stable. So, you should talk to your doctor before taking the option of getting surgery.

In order to slow the effect of nearsightedness, you could ask the doctor to prescribe some medications or eye drops like atropine which will slow down the progression of nearsightedness. Increase the time of the outdoor activity as it slows down the progression of myopia in children. Exposure to sunlight helps to maintain the structure of the cornea and also keeps it in proper shape. Dual focal lenses can be used by the children aged between 8 to 12 years as it helps in slowing down the progression of nearsightedness.

Precautionary care :

Eliminating the disease is near to impossible for nearsighted people but proper care can help them in stabilizing its effect. Slowing down the progression of nearsightedness may not cure the disease fully but has been effective in stabilizing it.

  • People having nearsightedness should go for regular check-ups.
  • Having health conditions like diabetes and high blood pressure causes deterioration in the eyesight. In order to prevent that proper care of health needs to be done.
  • Sunglasses should be worn when travelling in the sun as it will block the harmful UV-rays from reaching the eyes.
  • Protective eye gear should be worn in order to prevent any eye injuries.
  • Green vegetables and lots of fruits should be eaten in order to improve eyesight. Eating omega-3 fatty acids also helps in improving the nearsightedness of a person.
  • Reducing the amount of screen time can be of great help. People doing work on laptops should look away from the screen for 20 seconds and should always take a break after half an hour.
  • Visiting a doctor is necessary if the symptoms of nearsightedness worsen, as it may be due to some underlying diseases.

To seek advice related to nearsightedness one could contact an ophthalmologist, an optometrist or an optician. An ophthalmologist is a specialist with a doctor of medicines and specializes in eye evaluations and eye disorders. They also perform refractive surgery. An optometrist is a trained person in the field of eye evaluations and helps in providing corrective lenses. An optician is a specialist who provides eyeglasses and lenses based on the prescription written by the ophthalmologist or optometrist. Opticians do not diagnose or perform eye surgery. Above mentioned points can help you out when you make your next appointment with the specialist.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment.Visit our website Eyemantra.To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.Our other services include Retina SurgerySpecs RemovalCataract Surgery, and many more.

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Reason behind your Red Eyes and How can you Cure them https://eyemantra.org/blog/red-eyes-cure/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/red-eyes-cure/#respond Fri, 15 Jan 2021 09:36:59 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8374 Red eyes are the condition in which the blood vessels present in the eyes are either swell or causes irritation in the eyes. It is also known as bloodshot eyes.

The underlying causes of red eyes

Red eyes are mainly caused due to inflamed blood vessels in the eyes. This causes redness in the eyes in the white part of the eyes. The visible symptoms of red eyes include irritation, itching, appearance of red colour in the white part of the eye, fluid discharge, feeling of pressure on the eyes. Though some of the causes may not be of much concern, it can lead to serious conditions when it starts to affect the eyesight of the person. The most common causes of red eyes are presence of irritants, eye infections, conjunctivitis, allergens, blepharitis and many other underlying causes.

  • Irritants– In the air there are usually many unwanted particles present which when come in contact with the surface of the eye can cause red eyes. The irritants like dry air, cough, dust, cold and bacterial infections cause the blood vessels to swell.
  • Eye infections– The infections in the eyes also leads to redness in the eyes. It can lead to some complications in the eyes and also cause pain and change the vision. Blepharitis, conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers and uveitis are the most common eye infections.
  • Conjunctivitis– It is a serious condition in which the redness of the eye is caused due to bacterial or viral infections in the eye. The eyes turn back into normal in a day or two. Consultation of the doctor is required if redness remains for a long time.
  • Allergens– Some people face redness in their eyes when they come in contact with the pollen grains present in the air. The presence of mold also causes the red-eye and is a common allergen. Some people also have an allergy to pet dander, and it can also cause redness in the eye.
  • Uveitis– Uvea is a pigmented portion of the eyes and its inflammation can cause red eyes. It can lead to pain and redness near the coloured part of the eye.
  • Substance abuse– People who are under influence of alcohol and drugs have red eyes due to dilation in the blood vessels of the eyes. This type of redness is temporary and is harmless.

Treatment :

Redness in the eyes usually remains for short time like for a day or two. Only in some conditions the adverseness may increase and may cause a change in the vision and extreme pain. In such conditions, it is advisable to visit a doctor immediately. The other symptoms where patients should visit the doctor are blurry vision,green or yellow discharge from the eyes, seasonal redness in the eyes can cause extreme pain and pressure.

The other treatments for mild red eyes include taking drugs having naphazoline or tetrahydrozoline in them. These two components when present in the eye drops help in the decongestion and clear up the eyes of any irritation. They help in treating red eyes caused due to any allergens.

The eye lubricant drops are also helpful in treating such conditions. In case there is an infection in the eye which is causing the redness then, the doctor might suggest using glaucoma drops or antibiotic drops to treat the infection in the eyes. These medicines should be taken under proper consultation only.

There are also small home remedies that can give small-term relief to the person suffering from red eyes. Soaking the towel in warm water and keeping it on the eyelid can help ease the irritation and red eyes. This method is called a warm compress. In this the person needs to put the towel soaked in warm water over the eyelid for at least 10 minutes and then repeat again. Keeping a warm environment helps in increasing the blood flow of the blood vessels present in the eyes by heat radiating from the warm towel. It also helps in increasing the oil production of the eyes.

Opposite to this method is the cold-water treatment or the cool compress. In this instead of warm water, cold water can be used. Extreme cold water should be avoided as it may increase the redness of the eyes. A cold compress helps in reducing the itchiness and irritation in the eyes.

These two home remedies provide temporary relief from the red eyes and irritation. If symptoms of red eyes persist then, it is highly recommended to consult a physician for the same.

Small changes in our food habits and surroundings can also have a positive effect on red eyes and can cure them naturally. Staying dehydrated can cause irritation and bloodshot eyes which can be prevented by drinking an ample amount of water to maintain the body fluids. Processed foods, fast foods and dairy products when consumed in excess can cause inflammation in the eyes. To reduce its effects, maintain a proper and healthy diet by introducing more anti-inflammatory foods. Foods rich in omega-3 should be consumed by the person having red eyes as it helps them to reduce the inflammation in the eyes. Places having high number of pollens, smoke and dry air should be avoided by the person having red eyes due to allergens.

How to prevent occurring of red eyes?

Some small precautions and care can help to lower the chance of contracting red eyes. Proper hygiene and care of the surrounding can reduce the occurrence of red eyes.

  • A person who came in contact with the person having any kind of eye infection should wash their hands thoroughly and should avoid touching their eyes by the unwashed hands.
  • Women who wear eye makeup on the regular basis should remove makeup before going to bed. Makeup residues left in the eye can lead to redness in the eyes.
  • Wearing unclean contact lenses for longer period of time also increases the chances of getting red eyes which can be avoided by wearing clean contact lenses for some period.
  • Increased screen activity can lead to red eyes and inflammation. So, one should avoid long screen time and should take a break in between to reduce the strain on the eyes.
  • Surroundings having the presence of excess allergens should be avoided by the people who are prone to red eyes due to allergens.
  • One should avoid staying dehydrated for long time and should maintain their body fluids.
  • If there is any contamination in the eye then you should wash it with water thoroughly in order to get rid of the contamination.
  • Proper sleep is necessary for the eyes to relax. If a proper sleep at night isn’t available it can lead to itchiness and redness of the eyes and in worse conditions can lead to eye infections.
  • People with drinking habits should reduce the amount of alcohol and drug consumption as it causes redness in the eyes.

With proper care, red eyes can be prevented easily. If the symptoms still persist and the condition (infection) of the eyes worsens then a visit to a doctor is recommended as they would help you to determine the main cause of redness in the eyes.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment.Visit our website Eyemantra. To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.Our other services includes Low Vision Aids And Techniques,Specs RemovalCataract Surgery, and many more.

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Cataract : Symptoms ,Risk Factors , Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment https://eyemantra.org/blog/catract-symptoms-risk-factors/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/catract-symptoms-risk-factors/#respond Fri, 15 Jan 2021 05:04:00 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8365 A cataracts is eyes related lens abnormality characterized by decreased transparency and increased cloudiness that eventually prevents it from sending clear images to the retina. It is becoming one of the leading causes of reversible vis­ual impairment and blindness globally where the number of cases are expected to increase with an ageing population. The World Health report estimates approximately 20 million people to be bilaterally blind with less than 3/60 visual acuity in the better eye and about 100 million eyes with cataract causing a visual acuity (VA) of less than 6/60. The condition is found to be more prevalent in populations with lower socioeconomic status and in developing countries owing to insufficient surgical facilities that have posed as a major challenge for ophthalmologists on public health stance. Though the incidence of cataract blindness has been speculative but the estimates do suggests < 6/60 VA in 25 million eyes globally and about 3.8 million people in India becoming blind from cataract every year.

Symptoms of cataract

Natural lens of the eyes is a crystalline biconvex structure that refracts (bens) the light rays to produce a clear passage for our vision. Any modification, aggregation and precipita­tion of crystalline proteins are, Therefore considered detrimental to the main mechanisms underlying the cataract development.  There are many subdivisions in a full classification, and these can be helpful in ascribing different levels of symptoms to a particular sub-type of cataract.

  1. Cortical cataracts:
  2. Light scatter from localized opacities and disruption of smooth light transmission.
  3. Difficulty in reading
  4. Problems with glare when driving
  5. Uncomfortable to sunlight in winters when the sun is considered to be low on the horizon

Additional effects common to the developing world includes

  • Compatibility with daytime activities due to constriction in pigmented iris.
  • Difficulty in night driving.
  • Nuclear cataracts:
  • Reduction in colour intensities
  • Gradual reduction in contrast
  • Difficulty in recognizing faces
  • Difficulty in seeing golf balls or car number plates
  • Reading is often surprisingly good for the Snellen level of acuity.

Additional effects common to the developing world include difficulty in working at fields during dusk.

  • Subcapsular cataracts:
  • Difficulty in daytime driving
  • Difficulty in reading
  • Less trouble at low light levels when pupils become dilated

Additional effects common to the developing world are characterized by visual disabilities as sunlight can become particularly bright to the condition.

Risk factors of cataract:

Cataract formation is considered to be mostly a multifactorial disease that develops with their specific etiologies and varies with the type of cataract, patient’s lifestyle or visual requirements. As new lens fibres continue to be laid down in the crystalline lens without replacing the existing ones, their optical homogeneities are maintained by several interdependent factors responsible for its microscopic structure and chemical constituents.

Adult-onset of cataract is primarily age-related (or senile). It is defined as cataract occurring in people >50 years of age that are unrelated to any known mechanical, chemical, or radiation trauma. The mean age of presentation for cataract is estimated to be 62.46 years in India where 70% of the study population has shown VA <20/200. Similar ages at presentation were also reported in Africa (66.5 years) and Canada (73.4 years) with studies from Nepal showing 11.5% of patients being operated for cataract as blind at presentation. The estimates clearly reflect its severity with progression resulting in reduced light transmission from the gradual accumulation of yellow-brown pigment within the lens. Moreover, Several structural changes to the lens fibres also add disruption to their regular architecture and arrangement of the fibres that are otherwise necessary to maintain optical clarity. Such conditions may further aggravate the underlying symptoms of senile cataract through the specific mechanisms of oxidative damage, abnormal migration of lens epithelial cell, elevated calcium or deficiency of glutathione.

A number of metabolic conditions such as diabetes mellitus have also been linked to the accelerated rates of cataract development. A poor control of diabetes mellitus is usually associated with non-enzymatic protein glycation, oxidative and osmotic stress resulting in several systemic and ocular complications including vision loss. Such individuals develop cataracts approximately 20 years earlier and might undergo cataract surgery for visually signifi­cant cataracts at a much younger age.  Other metabolic conditions such as hypocalcaemia, Wilson disease and myotonic dystrophy may also increase the incidence of cataract in patients with pseudo-exfoliation syndrome and atopic dermatitis. Also, Ischaemic ocular conditions such as pulseless disease, thromboangiitis obliterans and anterior segment necrosis have contributed quite significantly to the cataract formation.

Extrinsic factors, on the other hand, has been widely associated with the variability in cataract formation from the prevailing socio-economic and geographical differences. This has been defined by the condition of malnutrition, acute dehydrating diseases at a young age, and exposure to excessive ultraviolet rays. In many developing countries, cataracts are still common in young adults which have been frequently associated with the treatment of their atopic disorders. This includes systemic, inhaled or topical use of corticosteroid in a dose – duration-dependent manner and use of several other drugs involving phenothiazines, miotics, amiodarone and statins.  Blunt trauma along with perforating injuries, ionizing radiation, infrared radiation (to which glassblowers are frequently exposed) and microwave radiation can also lead to cataract formation where alkali burns are more likely to be severe than their acid injuries.

Diagnosis :

Patients are evaluated for visual impairment and other symptoms along with concomitant eye diseases that could potentially influence the surgical plan or visual outcome. Such an assessment can be done subjectively accord­ing to the patients’ perception or by visual acuity meas­urements that are recorded for both far and near distances. Analysis of the intraocular pressure, the lacrimal apparatus, eye alignment in the orbita, motility and pupillary function becomes helpful for planning surgery and providing a prognosis of the patient’s vis­ual function. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy is performed to examine such abnormalities in the eyelids, lashes, cornea, anterior chamber, pupillary dilatation along with the hardness of cataract. Detailed fundus examination through a dilated pupil is used for evalu­ating the status of the lens, macula, peripheral retina, optic nerve and vitreous humour. Supplement tests such as contrast sensitivity, glare disability and ocular wavefront testing for visual aberrations can help to identify the cause and level of severity of visual symptoms. Testing with a potential acuity meter, laser interferometer or scanning laser ophthalmoscope involves projecting an image onto the retina through relatively clear regions of the lens to predict the visual acuity following cataract surgery. If necessary, other ancillary tests could also be performed includ­ing colour vision or visual field measurement, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography and B‑scan ultrasonography.

Surgical treatment :

Deteriorating visual function from cataracts requires a restoration of the transparency of the optical pathway through replacement of the clouded crystal­line lens with an IOL of appropriate refractive power. Current surgical techniques achieve these goals with precision, reproducibility and safety owing to our ability to measure the optical parameters of the eye, advanced technologies to remove the cataract and continuing advances in IOL design. All modern techniques are variations of extracapsular cataract surgery, in which most of the surrounding clear lens capsule is preserved to permanently support the IOL. Zonules (microscopic ligaments) are attached and inserted circumferentially onto the lens capsular equator to sus­pend and support the lens. After removing the firm lens nucleus and softer surrounding cortex, IOL is then placed within the vacated capsular bag where it lies anterior to the remains of the cleared capsule.

In order to measure the results of cataract surgery, it is necessary to define the outcome. This has been explained by the WHO Prevention of Blindness Programme in terms of visual acuity, which can be assessed with full spectacle correction (“best vision”), or with available correction (“functioning vision”). Poor outcome is defined as <6/60.13, the borderline outcome as <6/18 to 6/60 and a good outcome as 6/6–6/18.  As the period from surgery of acuity measurement also affects the results, it should therefore be standardised for an individual situation so that trends over time can be reviewed. Studies from developing countries are usually divided into clinical trials/selected series, long term population-based studies and routine hospital-based data. The results from clinical trials and individual series have been good with poor outcome occurring in less than 5% of the cases, unlike the routine hospital-based reports and long term population-based studies.

Naturally poor acuity experienced by patients following surgery affects the demand for cataract surgery by the community. And there seems little doubt that the poor results due to lost aphakic spectacles and surgeries by inexperienced personnel under inadequate conditions are still having a negative impact on people’s perceptions of cataract treatment.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment.

Visit our website Eyemantra.To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.Our other services include GLAUCOMA SURGERY, Specs RemovalSmile Eye Surgery , and many more.

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Nearly one-quarter of children with COVID-19 have Ocular Symptoms https://eyemantra.org/blog/covid-19-ocular-symptoms/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/covid-19-ocular-symptoms/#respond Wed, 13 Jan 2021 12:47:31 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8356 Ocular symptoms

According to the reports from a hospital in Wuhan, nearly a quarter of children suffering from covid-19 develop ocular symptoms.


COVID-19 is the acronym for “coronavirus disease 2019”. This is the official name given by the World Health Organization ( WHO) to this fatal disease.

WHO first came to know about this new, dangerous disease caused by the coronavirus in December 2019. Older generations i.e. people of age 60 years and more are at a higher risk of getting affected because of this virus. People who do not have a very good and healthy medical history and have complicated problems like, blood pressure, cancer, high cholesterol, diabetes etc are even more prone to be at risk at the hands of this coronavirus and develop a serious illness which can later prove fatal. Apart from affecting the victim’s lungs, this virus affects other organs of the body as well. These include kidney, liver and heart.

However, age and medical conditions are now no longer the only parameters to govern as to who is at more risk. Almost anyone can get sick with COVID-19 and become seriously ill or die at any age. 


Ocular rosacea is a kind of inflammation that develops in people who have rosacea ( a chronic skin condition that affects the face). This primarily affects the people of the age group 30-50. The symptoms of this ocular rosacea are what we call as ocular symptoms ( any eye symptom that makes the person uncomfortable can also be simply called as an ocular symptom ).

These symptoms generally include:

  • Redness in the eyes
  • Itching in the eyes
  • Foreign sensation in the eyes
  • Blurred vision


Almost all of the cases of covid-19 reported earlier were found to end with development of ocular symptoms in adults. Little was known about ocular disorders in children who were diagnosed with COVID-19. It is important to be fully aware about the potential of COVID-19 in children to make the ocular disorders develop in their body accompanied by symptoms such as conjunctival discharge, eye rubbing, conjunctival congestion, ocular pain, eyelid swelling or tearing. During the initial stages when the doctors started to discover that covid-19 can result in ocular symptoms in children as well, it was typically not severe. All the symptoms were mild and could recover or improve with time if proper treatment is done.


As compared to adults, the effect of covid-19 in children could be very different in terms of exposure history, ocular disorders and clinical characteristics. With this view, researchers decided to investigate the various ocular disorders of children with laboratory-confirmed covid-19.

To conduct the study, the researchers performed a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of children with COVID-19 treated at Wuhan Children’s Hospital in Wuhan, China, between January 26 and March 18, 2020. A total of 216 infected children were included, among whom 62% were boys, with a median age of 7.25 years. Electronic questionnaires were designed to obtain additional information on ocular involvements including onset, duration and offset of the ocular symptoms as a result of covid-19. In certain special cases where the questionnaire could not provide accurate results, a telephonic call or a face-to-face interaction was scheduled up to gather information from the patients.

The results of the study were as follows:

  • 22.7% ( i.e. approximately one-fourth of the total strength involved in the study ) of the children, showed various ocular symptoms. Nine out of these children had ocular complaints upon initial presentation.
  • Some common ocular symptoms included:
  • Conjunctival discharge – showed by 27 children
  • Eye rubbing – showed by 19 children
  • Conjunctival congestion – showed by 5 children
  • Ocular pain – showed by 4 children
  • Eyelid swelling – showed by 4 children
  • Tearing –  showed by only 2 children 
  • Children with serious and the most common symptoms of coronavirus like cough were found to be nearly twice as likely to develop these ocular symptoms.
  • 37.5% of the children showed fever as the only symptom. On the other hand, 36.6% of them showed cough. But the good news is that the majority of them ( i.e. 43.1% ) of them did not show any sort of respiratory disorders.
  • Most of the ocular symptoms seen in the children were mild. Twenty three patients recovered quickly without the treatment, while others continuously received antibacterial, antiviral or antiallergic eye drops. There were around eight children who had a persistent habit of rubbing their eyes. These children took more time to recover as compared to the other children involved in the test.
  • The median duration of ocular symptoms was seven days.

Although the above study provided us with some really valuable information regarding the development of ocular symptoms in children, there are certain limitations the researchers could not cope up with. These are as follows:

  • The researchers failed to acquire some strong pathogenic evidence of ocular disorders developed in children. The descriptions of ocular symptoms can be subjective to some extent, especially in children of young age who are unable to express or describe their discomfort.
  • The face-to-face examinations by ophthalmologists were performed in a COVID-19 isolation unit, which was not well equipped with eye examination instruments.
  • Children with covid-19 in this study came from one particular city in a country. Therefore, the predicted results may not be generalizable to children present in other geographic locations.


The study conducted in Wuhan concerning a number of children suffering from covid-19 clearly proves that nearly one-quarter of the children involved in the experiment developed ocular symptoms either before or after the disease. Most of the children developed the ocular symptoms later in the disease but nine of them developed these symptoms as initial signs of covid-19.

We know viral illnesses of most types can cause non-specific symptoms when they involve mucus membranes and the respiratory tract. The eyes are physically connected to the nose and the throat, so any sort of virus that is in the mouth, nose and throat has a direct passage to the eyes.


In order to prevent the development of ocular symptoms in children after covid-19, the doctors and parents advise the children to take certain precautions. These include:

  1. Protect your eyes well while going to public places. Just like you protect your nose and mouth with a mask from being infected by the virus, similarly use goggles or shades to cover your eyes if at all you sense the onset of any of the ocular symptoms like redness or itching in your eyes.
  2. Do not rub your eyes with bare hands. There are chances of the virus easily getting transmitted through your eyes when you touch them with hands that might have been in contact with various other contaminated surfaces. This can cause infection in the eyes and hence ocular symptoms and further disorders might develop.
  3. Wash your hands with sanitizer at regular intervals. This will prevent the traces of the virus from staying in touch with your skin for too long.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment.

Visit our website Eyemantra.

To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.

Our other services include Retina SurgerySpecs RemovalCornea Surgery and many more.

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Surfer’s eye : Causes ,Symptoms and it’s Mechanism https://eyemantra.org/blog/surfers-eye-causes-symptoms/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/surfers-eye-causes-symptoms/#respond Wed, 13 Jan 2021 08:01:41 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8344 The surfer’s eye or pterygium is a disease in which there is a growth from the cornea region all along the pupil causing obstruction to the vision. It usually causes inflammation or redness in the eye which in severe conditions can be proven fatal to the patient. It can be treated by surgical means such as the amniotic membrane transplantation method.

Surfer’s eye

It is also called as pterygium or eye web. In this case, there is a growth of pinkish, triangular-shaped growth from the cornea near the nose end and goes on increasing covering pupil which results in loss of vision. Though this disease has no particular cause or reason and it can be fatal to patients.

Causes of Surfer’s eye

  There is no particular cause for the occurrence of this disease. It can be caused by increased exposure to wind or sand or sunlight. People who are living in windy regions as well as near to the equator tend to get this diseased condition. This condition is most common in men rather than in women. It occurs twice in men than in women.

There is a partial relation between this disease and exposure to UV light as well as with genetic factors. Long-term exposure in UV light increases the chances of getting surfer’s eye. Also, genetic factors have an impact on surfer’s eye disease. Pinguecula and tumors in a eye have similar conditions like the surfer’s eye disease.

Symptoms of Surfer’s eye

There are some various other signs and symptoms that are seen in this disease, which are

  • Redness in the eye which is persistent
  • Inflammation
  • Sensation of a foreign body inside the eye
  • Tears or watering of eyes
  • Itchy and dry eyes

As the severity of the disease increases, the surfer’s eye can affect or cause the loss of vision. It affects the cornea by obscuring the optical centre and causes astigmatism and also induces corneal scarring. These symptoms can also cause problems in cosmetic appearance in many patients. In some regions of the world, patients can be ranging from 1% to almost 30%. It becomes even more common with the increase in age. Also with the defect in the tumor-suppressing gene causes surfer’s eye.


It is characterized by actinic elastosis i.e, elastotic degeneration of collagen and fibrovascular proliferation. Surfer’s eye or pterygia has a head and a neck that joins with the main portion of the body. Stocker’s line is a line of iron deposition which is present beside the head of a pterygium. It indicates the pattern of growth through the location of a line.

Some of the researchers suggest that a genetic predisposition of vimentin, which causes cellular movement of keratoblasts. These cells help in rising layers in the cornea. It also causes congenital pterygium which is seen in infants.

It has different segments such as

Fuchs’ patches – these are mild minute gray blemishes seen near the head of the pterygium.

Stocker’s line – these are iron deposits which are of brown colour.

 Hood – pterygium has a fibrous non-vascular portion

Head – a typically raised and highly vascular apex of pterygium.

Body – a fleshy part which has tortuous vessels.

Superior edge – upper edge of the portion which is either triangle or wing-shaped in pterygium.

Inferior edge – lower edge of the portion which is either triangle or wing-shaped in pterygium.


It can easily diagnose by viewing the patient’s eye properly without any specific need. Since, there are diseases that have similar symptoms or appearance so in order to differentiate them from surfer’s eye disease, one must undergo differential diagnosis which helps in the differentiation of these diseases.  

Corneal tomography is a practical technique that is performed to diagnose the surfer’s eye when there is a severe condition.

In differential diagnosis, the pterygium is differentiated from pinguecula, which has similarities histologically as well as etiologically. The major difference is that the pinguecula can only be seen in the conjunctiva but unlike pterygium, it doesn’t spread to limbus or cornea.

There is another condition which is also called as pseudopterygium, which causes adhesion of inflammatory conjunctiva. But unlike surfer’s eye, it can occur at any point in cornea and also adhesion is limited to apex only usually.


The treatment of surfer’s eye under extreme conditions such as loss of vision or other visual disturbances or in case of symptoms which cannot be managed,then opts for performing a surgery.


Also called as auto-grafting method. This is a surgical procedure in which causes removal of surfer’s eye or pterygium effectively. The tenous layer which is present in the sclera region is also removed along with the removal of surfer’s eye.

In this surgery, Actually there is the removal of bare sclera with conjunctival tissue from the area of healthy conjunctiva. Then, there is transplantation of that “self tissue” to the bare sclera and then with the help of sutures and tissue adhesives, the fixation is done.

However, after conjuctival autograft surgery, the reoccurrence of the surfer’s eye disease is less than six months when it is compared with amniotic membrane transplantation. In order to decrease the risk of recurrence, radiotherapy is used as an attempt.

Amniotic membrane transplantation

This is a safe and effective method for the surfer’s eye removal. It provides a practical alternative for the conjunctival autograft transplantation surgery that helps in the removal of surfer’s eye. This transplantation surgery is taking place since 1940s.

A tissue that is acquired from the innermost layer of the placenta of a human that is used to heal and replace the damaged mucosal membrane and the restoration of the ocular membrane inside the eye. It has anti-inflammatory as well as rejuvenation properties. Even in this surgery, the fixation to the sclera is done by the use of sutures and glue adhesives. There is also no account of the recurrence of the surfer’s eye in this surgery.


 As the common causes of this disease are exposure to sun as well as wind, wearing sunglasses along with the side shields helps in preventing entry of air or excessive sunlight. Also, the usage of wide-brimmed hats with the use of artificial tears throughout the day helps in preventing their formation or prevent further growth of the surfer’s eye.

Athletes such as surfers or other water sports player should wear eye protection that helps in protecting the eyes by blocking the harmful UV rays from the water and these types of equipment are often used by snow sport athletes. For some people, there is a greater risk of surfer’s eye condition from their workplace itself .

Although the use of sunglasses and usage of hats in areas where there is great exposure to sunlight. Along with those, the use of eye lubricating agents or lubricants can help in reducing the symptoms of surfer’s eye disease. This condition is usually seen in both eyes. Not only that, the removal of the surfer’s eye condition with the help of surgery is only recommended when there is a risk of loss of vision for the patient. But, the major side or adverse effect is that after the surgery, there is almost 50 % chance of getting the symptoms back again in various cases.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment.Visit our website Eyemantra.To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.Our other services include Retina SurgerySpecs Removal,Eye Socket  and many more.

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All You Need to know about Retinopathy of Prematurity https://eyemantra.org/blog/retinopathy-of-prematurity/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/retinopathy-of-prematurity/#respond Wed, 13 Jan 2021 04:27:32 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=8338 Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an eye-related problem in which there is an abnormal growth of blood vessels near the retina which can result in bleeding inside the eye in premature babies which in severe cases causes loss of vision.

This is also called as Terry syndrome or retrolental fibroplasia (RLF). This is an eye disease seen in prematurely born babies, who have received neonatal intensive care generally. In this neonatal intensive care, oxygen therapy is used for the development of premature lungs.

 It is suggested that this condition is caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels, which leads to scarring as well as retinal detachment. It can causes blindness in rare cases but usually gets treated and is mild in nature. It was first discovered by Theodore L Terry in the year 1942. Relative hypoxia and oxygen toxicity contribute to Retinopathy of prematurity development.

Causes of Retinopathy of prematurity :

 During the pregnancy in the fourth month, the retina of the fetus begins its vascularization development. This formation of blood vessels is sensitive to the amount of supplied oxygen, either artificially or naturally. There is a mutation of the NDP gene in some patients who are suffering from said ailment.

Risk factors of Retinopathy of prematurity:

  • Cardiovascular problems
  • Excessive exposure to oxygen
  • Various eye or other infections
  • Premature birth or prematurity
  • Less birth weight


  Generally, the development of retina i.e, growth of blood vessels in center region of retina outwardly. This development of retina gets complete in a few weeks before the delivery of the baby. This is usually seen in normal babies. But, this process is incomplete in premature babies. There is an abnormal growth and branching of blood vessels that causes retinopathy of prematurity condition. These blood vessels grow up from the plane of the retina and can result in bleeding of the retina inside the eye. It can result in detachment of retina and causes loss of vision before 6 months in premature babies.

Retinopathy of prematurity majorly causes fibrovascular proliferation. This fibrovascular proliferation causes the growth of abnormal new blood vessels. Fibrous tissue ( scar tissue) has an association with these newly formed abnormal blood vessels which may result in retinal degradation and detachment of the retina.

There are various multiple factors that influence the progression of the disease such as

  • Overall health
  • Weight of the child during birth
  • Initial diagnosis of the disease
  • Stages of retinopathy of prematurity
  • Presence or absence of other diseases

The retinopathy of prematurity can be reduced by restricting the supplement oxygen exposure. It is one of the risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity condition. By restricting the supplemental oxygen, there is a risk of other hypoxia-related development diseases, including death.

Patients who are suffering retinopathy of prematurity disease can increase the risk of strabismus, cataract surgery ,glaucoma and myopic condition (short sightedness) in later stages of life. So, in order to determine and detect as well as to prevent the other eye conditions, the patient should be examined yearly and given proper treatment.


   Since there are five stages. Stage 1 and stage 2 are mild and do not cause any loss of vision. But the later stages cause an increase in severity of the retinopathy of prematurity condition. Stage 3 of this disease is divided into zone I and zone II based on its effect. Whereas stage 4 and stage 5 cause subtotal and complete retinal detachment respectively.

Few conditions such as squint, amblyopia as well as glaucoma and loss of vision are commonly seen in different stages of retinopathy of prematurity diseases in premature infants.

The retinopathy of prematurity disease is prevalent in developed countries in ranges from 5% to 8% which contains enough neonatal intensive care units and facilities. There is an increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity condition in India, China as well as other Asian countries.


   The retinopathy of prematurity disease has different stages which are classified by the  International classification of Retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP).

The stages are classified as

  • Stage 1 is known as the faint demarcation line.
  • Stage 2 is known as an elevated ridge.
  • Stage 3 is known as extra-retinal fibrovascular tissue.
  • Stage 4 is known as sub-total retinal detachment.
  • Stage 5 is known as total as well as complete retinal detachment.

Plus disease:

This is one of the major complicating factors at any stage of retinopathy of prematurity condition . This disease is characterized by

  • There is a significant level of vascular dilation and curves are observed at the posterior retinal arterioles. This causes increased blood flow through the retina inside the eye.
  • Vascular engorgement of iris
  •  Anterior chamber as well as vitreous haze
  • Due to the growth of immature blood vessels over the lens, there is a restriction of pupil dilation. This condition is also called as persistent tunica vasculosa lentis.

Differential diagnosis:

There are other few other diseases that  have similarities with retinopathy of prematurity condition such as

  • It is a genetic disorder that disturbs the vascularization of the retina in infants. This disease is known as Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy.
  •  Another disease which is known as persistent fetel vasculature syndrome , that causes a traction retinal detachment inside the eye. This one is also called Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

Treatment of retinopathy of prematurity:

  In treating retinopathy of prematurity, the peripheral retinal ablation is done majorly. In this treatment, the abnormal or avascular retina is destroyed by performing a solid laser photocoagulation device. This device is easily portable in a neonatal intensive care unit or operating room.

  • At first, Cryotherapy is used as the treatment for retinopathy of prematurity disease. It causes destruction of retina by freezing the areas desired. It was found to be an effective treatment as well as for preventing retinopathy of prematurity disease. But due to the availability of laser treatment, there is an decrease in cryotherapy treatment. Cryotherapy treatment has adverse effects such as inflammation and swelling of eyelids.


  Vitrectomy surgery or scleral buckling is performed in later stages (stage 4&5) of retinopathy of prematurity disease. It is done in severe cases of retinopathy of prematurity where there is the risk of retinal detachment.

  • Intravitreal injections of Avastin (bevacizumab) are used in treating retinopathy of prematurity disease. There are various benefits of this medication, such as a reduced level of anaesthesia usage and the viable peripheral retina is preserved. But there is a risk in the usage of this injection which is ocular and has systemic complications in the patients.
  • Propranolol is administered orally for the treatment of the retinopathy of prematurity condition. Propranolol decreases stage 2 progression by almost 48% and stage 3 progress by 52%. However, this medicine causes few adverse effects in infants such as bradycardia and hypotension like conditions.

After treatment:

  After the infant is diagnosed and given treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, he or she must be checked yearly for life long. They are needed to perform follow up every year.

 After laser or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the follow up is individually performed.

 Due to the diverse treatments in health care centers of different countries, the check-up of infants (suffering from retinopathy of prematurity disease or not) after the treatment is different in various centers and countries.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment.Visit our website Eyemantra.To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com.

Our other services include Retina SurgeryPaediatric OphthalmologistOculoplasty and many more.

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Pediatric Cataract Surgery Can Be Responsible For Glaucoma https://eyemantra.org/blog/pediatric-cataract-surgery/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/pediatric-cataract-surgery/#respond Sat, 02 Jan 2021 11:44:08 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=7767 The pediatric cataract surgery is performed to treat cataract occurring in children due to various reasons. The surgery can sometimes causes some complications such as glaucoma in the eye.

We shall start first by understanding what actually is pediatric cataract surgery and it’s conditions. It is a cataract condition which occurs in young children. It can occur in children through genetic causes such as Down syndrome, and sometimes during pregnancy, the mother might get attacked with infections such as chickenpox which might increase the chances for the child getting a cataract and also the child can get an injury which causes cataract.

There are numerous types of cataracts and pediatric cataract is one of them. There are two types of pediatric cataracts namely acquired and congenital. The acquired cataract is the one which is seen because of any kind of injury or inflammation near the eye. The congenital cataract is caused by genes and it can be easily treated.

Before the pediatric cataract surgery: (pre operative work)

Before the pediatric cataract surgery takes place, a series of certain tests must be performed so that the need of pediatric cataract surgery can be determined.

The pediatric cataract surgery is not as simple as that of adults. While performing a surgery on children, it requires immense care and caution due to various causes such as

  • Presence of young ocular tissues anatomically.
  • The ocular growth is continuous in children

A test that helps in determining the significance of lens opacification on visual development and amblyopia is done so that appropriate age acuity is detected on visual functioning.

For children who are in pre verbal stage, based on their ability to follow the light and preferential acuity test such as teller’s acuity test etc.

And for those who are in verbal stage, optotype charts are used.

Presence of strabismus condition

 Usually, the patients who undergo with cataracts can have strabismus or nystagmus as one of the side effects.

The presence of strabismus is less than that of nystagmus. Nystagmus is a condition in which the eyes perform involuntarily i.e, there is a sudden movement in the eyes and these kind of eye movements are also called as ‘dancing eyes’. The strabismus is usually caused by congenital cataract and is usually seen in cases of bilateral congenital cataract.

Laboratory diagnosis of pediatric cataract surgery

The congenital cataract can be also diagnosed in laboratory tests such as CBCs, blood sugars and red galactose kinase and serum calcium and phosphorus.

The study of history of the patient can help in increasing chances of understanding the cause of cataract even more clearly and help with the pediatric cataract surgery, The history of life style such as consumption of drugs or alcohol and any kind of traumatic experience while delivering the child and galactosemia.

New tests for pediatric cataract surgery

There are a set of newer tests which help in determining the cataract condition. The advances in DNA sequencing technology, which are called as next Gen sequencing (NGS). There is a possibility that this test is useful in future in identifying the congenital cataract which is caused by various genetically heterogeneous conditions.

Treatment of pediatric cataract surgery

Not all the cataracts should be treated with surgical procedures, there are certain conditions which do not require surgery to treat such conditions.

  • When the cataract lens size is not more than 3mm.
  • When there is an absence of extra conditions such as strabismus or nystagmus.
  • A good red glow is seen in ophthalmoscope
  • If there is no change in cataract or any development of amblyopia inside the eye then there is no requirement of any kind of surgery.
  • Usage of eye drops that causes eye dilation, the increased eye pupil size helps the child to view from the clear part.
  • But it also a side effect i.e, use of strong cycloplegic drops which cause loss of accommodation and increased chances of amblyopia occurrence.

Pediatric cataract Surgery

 The ultimate option left after the increase in other diseases such as strabismus and nystagmus etc. is pediatric cataract surgery.

While operating on a child before 4 weeks, there is an increase of complications due to use of general anesthesia. So, an experienced doctor operates over both the eyes simultaneously with a set of other equipments for both eyes separately.

In case of unilateral cataracts in children, the pediatric cataract surgery must be performed within 6 weeks so that there is no risk of amblyopia and also chance of glaucoma.

In case of bilateral cataracts in children, the pediatric cataract surgery takes in six to eight weeks with a gap of a week between surgeries of both eyes.

There are various differences seen in between performing a surgery in adult eyes and child’s eyes i.e, difference in normal cataract surgery and pediatric cataract surgery. As children’s eyes are far more delicate than adult ones and also the presence of much younger cornea and less sclera rigidity and well formed vitreous and softer lenses and the anterior lenses are very elastic in children.

 Use of anesthesia during pediatric cataract surgery can create an impact, as the children above 10 years of age can understand the local anesthesia effect and sedation takes place. But for the infants (below 1 month of age) the effect of local anesthesia can be more even after the operation (post operative).


 The set of complications are of two types in pediatric cataract surgery. They are early complications and late complications. In early complications, there are a set of problems that are seen in post operative duration such as

  1.  Intraocular lens capture or iris capture.
  2. During injury, the iris or vitreous incineration of wound.
  3. Inflammation caused after operation.
  4. The intraocular pressure can increase after the operation.
  5. Hemorrhages in vitreous region.
  6. Due to decrease in intraocular pressure, there is a retinal hemorrhage.
  7.  Detachment of retina from the eye.
  8. Leakages from the particular wound.

Late complications


It is a set of eye related problems caused by inflammation. After the pediatric cataract surgery, due to any kind of problem or postoperative inflammation or structural and anatomical damages, there is a risk of occurrence of glaucoma. The aphakic patients are the patients who have absence of lens inside their eyes, due to cataract surgery. They have loss of accommodation and far sightedness in high degree. So, chances of getting glaucoma is more in aphakic patients. The children whose families have a history of aphakic glaucoma are easy targets for the glaucoma.

Presence of fetel vasculature syndrome and nuclear cataract condition. There is a life long risk of getting a glaucoma inside the eye. So, the monitoring of the intraocular pressure inside the eye is prudent in this case. The inflammation inside the eye is usually much more seen in post operative because of immature blood aqueous barrier. The inflammation inside the eye is a common side effect in this case. The inflammation can be treated by usage of medications.


The pediatric cataract surgery is a complicated but successful surgery procedure which helps in treating blindness in children that occur through various reasons such as amblyopia or cataract.

The secondary lens which is implanted is taken care and effective methods to treat the amblyopia conditions with the help of post operative refractive error and along with patching. Monitoring the complications before they become fatal really helps in treating this condition.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment. Visit our website Eyemantra.

To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com. Our other services include, phaco surgeryCataract Surgery, and many more.

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Effective Amblyopia Treatments Other Than Eye Patching https://eyemantra.org/blog/amblyopia-treatments/ https://eyemantra.org/blog/amblyopia-treatments/#respond Sat, 02 Jan 2021 10:55:12 +0000 https://eyemantra.org/?p=7756 The most effective way of treating amblyopia is eye patching. There are also other options that have similar effect on the lazy eye.

What Is Amblyopia?

Amblyopia (also called as lazy eye) is a condition of the eye where the brain fails to take input from one of the eyes. It takes input from the active eye and ignores the so called lazy eye.

This condition majorly occurs in stages of early childhood ( up to 7 years of age) when the nerve pathways between one of the eyes and the brain aren’t properly stimulated. As a result, the brain tends to follow the pathway of the other eye. If not treated properly on time, the lazy eye might never get back to normal vision. The brain will then always favour one of the eyes and the second eye will never be able to participate in receiving and processing visual stimuli.

What are the ways to treat Amblyopia?

The key principle involved in the treatment of amblyopia is forcing the brain to focus on the lazy eye so that the nerve pathway that has been working lethargically might get activated and start processing inputs like the other eye.

There are a variety of treatment options available in the case of Amblyopia- eye patching, using corrective lenses, using prescribed eye drops, eye muscle surgery etc.

Treatment Options For Amblyopia – Use Of Eye Patches

Since this condition is most prominently found in children of very young ages, the treatment methods need to be such that the children can follow them easily without getting disturbed.

Out of a number of treatment options, the one option that is generally adopted by both the doctors and the parents for treating amblyopia is the use of eye patches. Covering the lazy eye of the patient with eye patches continuously for a considerable period of time helps the brain and the nerves connecting the brain to the lazy eye to get activated and start working and processing images. In 25% of the cases, discontinuation of the use of eye patches can pose risk of amblyopia returning to the children.

In such cases, children with amblyopia must wear an eye patch over the stronger of the two eyes. The patch is worn for 2–6 hours a day while the child is awake for several months or years, depending on the seriousness of the child’s condition.

There are two types of eye patches:

  • One that is designed for the children who do not wear glasses. It works like a band-aid and is placed directly over the stronger eye.
  • One that is designed for the children who wear glasses. It is a cloth patch that fits securely over one lens.

Making sure that your child wears the eye patch and that too properly and continuously for the said time period can be a huge challenge. But kids usually adapt well and fast, and the patch simply becomes part of their day. In the meantime, recreational activities such as distraction with a new or exciting toy, a trip to the park, or just playing outside can help kids forget that they’re wearing an eye patch.

If due to some reasons, the eye patches are not being used by the patient properly, the brain might again tend to ignore the lazy eye and will always, like before begin to process images of the objects through one eye alone.

Amblyopia Treatment- Alternative Ways Other Than The Use Of Eye Patches

Although the method of using eye patches for treating amblyopia is proven to be quite effective in children. But, the use of eye patches is still not followed properly by some children with a lazy eye. And since, the condition majorly develops in children, it is important to figure out other ways of treating amblyopia if the children are continuously resisting the use of eye patches due to some reason or the other.

The use of Atropine eye drops

Atropine drops or atropine ointment is instilled in the non-amblyopic eye of the patient for treating Amblyopia. Atropine eyedrops, when administered to the healthy eye, have been found to improve the visual activity of the eyes with moderate amblyopia. A study had recently been conducted that involved two clinical trials. The trials enrolled children of age 3 to 12 years with moderate amblyopia. In each of the trials, otherwise eligible subjects who had severe amblyopia had also been enrolled to explore and examine the effectiveness of weekend atropine treatment for severe amblyopia.

Atropine 1% eye drops help in blocking parasympathetic innervation to the ciliary muscles and to the pupil of the eye, causing pupillary dilation and temporary loss of accommodation (the ability to focus at nearer objects). Since it removes the ability to accommodate, atropine is more effective in farsighted eyes; in such eyes, it does not allow the child to focus at objects near to him.

The main aim of using Atropine is to stimulate preferential near fixation of the amblyopic eye and hence leading to visual improvement. The studies conducted concerning Amblyopia Treatment have also demonstrated that using atropine on weekend basis provides an improvement in visual acuity similar to that of daily use of atropine when treating moderate amblyopia in children of 3-7 years of age. 

One study was conducted to examine the combined effect of eye patching and the atropine eye drops when taken up by children of age 7-12 years, to speed up the treatment process. By the end of the study, most clinicians decided not to prefer amblyopia treatment by combining eye patching and atropine eye drops.

Bangerter filter

A less utilized treatment option is the use of Bangerter filter. In this treatment option, a graded translucent adhesive is applied to the child’s glasses over the lens of the non-amblyopic eye, producing a blurred image. The healthy eye infers a blurred image in front of it and hence the lazy eye is forced to form a clear image of the object. Children who cannot tolerate eye patches due to some reason or the other may get the same results by using Bangerter filters. Bangerter filters are a kind of opaque covering that fits on the inside of the eyeglass lens worn over the healthy eye.

Unlike the eye patches, Bangerter filters should be worn full time. They can be modified according to the density and opaqueness with time, as the condition of the lazy eye improves. For this reason, they may be useful after patching has occurred, as a secondary treatment option. These filters are mostly used in children of older age who prefer a less noticeable option than eye patching.

Use of occlusive contact lenses

The use of occlusive contact lenses is an effective option for the treatment of amblyopia. These lenses block vision in the non-amblyopic eye. Approximately 30% of the enrolled patients in one study successfully wore an occlusive contact lens. The study also included infants and young children.

Generally, it is advised to wear occlusive lenses for less than 10 hours per day. This reduces the chance of occlusion amblyopia of the non-amblyopic eye to a great extent. When using occlusive contact lenses, we must monitor the corneal health of the patient related to contact lens wear. Occlusive contact lenses can be more effective in children who are already using contact lenses. Otherwise, it requires additional help from the parents in encouraging and convincing their children for using contact lenses with care. The parameters of an occlusive lens are determined by fitting a clear lens of the same design as the opaque lens.

The best way to treat your eyes is to visit your eye care professional and get your eyes checked regularly. He will be able to assess the best method of treatment for your eye ailment. Visit our website Eyemantra.

To book an appointment call at +91-8851044355. Or mail us at eyemantra1@gmail.com. Our other services include, phaco surgeryCataract Surgery, and many more.

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